Mana and Tapu
Mana and tapu are concepts which have both been attributed single - worded definitions by contemporary writers. As concepts, especially Maori concepts they can not easily be translated in to a single English definition . Both mana and tapu take on a whole range of related meanings depending on their association and the context in which they are being used.
This chapter aims to outline some of the complexities of both mana and tapu and the impact each had on Maori society. The authority of mana and tapu derives from the kawai tipuna and tipuna. Maori inherited the qualities of mana and tapu from the kawai tipuna and recognised the need to maintain mana and tapu to the highest degree. This was particularly evident in the rangatira class. Maori vigorously defended both mana and tapu in everyday matters and tried to enhance them whenever possible.
Individuals could also acquire, increase or lose their mana through the deeds they performed. Mana influenced the way in which people and groups conducted themselves, acting as a reference point for the achievements and successes in one s life. Similarly, the mana that was attached to natural resources, whakapapa and inanimate objects could affect the behaviours of individuals and groups.
Tapu is examined in terms of how a person s undertakings can be restricted through the placing of tapu on people and things. Tapu was used as a way to control how people behaved towards each other and the environment. Examples of when and how tapu is used in society illustrates the dynamics of the concept.
Origins of Mana and Tapu
Ko te tapu te mana o nga kawai tipuna
Tapu is the mana of the kawai tipuna
Mana and tapu are two of the many fundamental concepts that governed the infrastructure of traditional Maori society. Along with most Maori tikanga, mana and tapu emanated from the kawai tipuna who have reign over specific areas of the world. The kawai tipuna are extremely tapu because of their extraordinary ability to create living things, and because the evidence of their creative efforts and authority over nature is reflective of their mana.
Our mana as human beings is a mana that is linked with the kawai tipuna, since the creation of human beings was the work of the kawai tipuna. And because the kawai tipuna are our immediate source of mana, they are also the source of our tapu. The relationship between mana and tapu are so closely intertwined as to be almost interchangeable in nature. The mana of a person will determine the comparative tapu of that person.
In some areas of New Zealand, however, exactly which of the kawai tipuna Maori derive their mana from is questionable. Some tribal areas suggest that Maori are linked with Tumatauenga, as humans adopted the war-like nature he displayed during the separation of Ranginui and Papatuanuku. He also displayed the ability to control most of his siblings through karakia. Tumatauenga could not exert this influence over Tawhirimatea though, and it is for this reason that humans do not have the power to restrain the elements. According to other traditions, our existence is due to the mana of Tane, as it was he who created the first woman Hineahuone out of the clay from Papatuanuku and from there derived the human race.
Personal mana of a human being can be overcome and annihilated, but the mana of the kawai tipuna cannot. To emphasise the fact that Maori did not possess intrinsic mana and tapu and that it was through the kawai tipuna which a person could have mana, Maori Marsden explains, Man remains always the agent or channel never the source of mana. This quote can also be applied to tapu.
The Acquisition of Mana and Tapu All things of nature possess mana and tapu. However, there are varying degrees of mana and tapu associated with something or someone, depending on their association with the kawai tipuna. The hierarchical structure of Maori society illustrates this. The kawai tipuna were extremely tapu because they held the positions at the top of Maori whakapapa. Since mana and tapu are concomitant with each other, the more tapu a person, the higher the mana, hence the idea that all things have mana and tapu but in varying degrees. This also applies to the whakapapa of animate and inanimate objects.
"The relationship, for Maori, is first and foremost genealogical. Ancestral ties bind the people and the [environment] Just as land entitlements, personal identity, and executive functions arose from ancestral devolution, so also it is by ancestry that Maori relate to the natural world. Based on their conception of the creation, all things in the universe, animate or inanimate, have their own genealogy, genealogies that were popularly remembered in detail. These each go back to Papatuanuku, the mother earth, through her offspring gods. Accordingly, for Maori the works of nature the animals, plants, rivers, mountains, and lakes are either kin, ancestors, or primeval parents according to the case, with each requiring the same respect as one would accord a fellow human being."
A person is imbued with mana and tapu by reason of his or her birth. In Maori society, high-ranking families whose genealogy could be traced back directly to the kawai tipuna were thought to be under their special care. This meant that the mana and tapu associated with those born in chiefly ranks descends directly from the kawai tipuna, which in turn makes high-ranking families very powerful. It was a priority for those of ariki descent to maintain the mana and tapu and to keep the strength of the mana and tapu associated with the kawai tipuna as pure as possible, therefore inter-tribal marriages were carefully selected in order for the classes to remain.
The tuakana children of ariki would be prepared for the time in which they would succeed their fathers in rank and in power. Those who were inducted into the role of ariki were usually male because of the laws of tapu and noa. They would receive the greatest amount of respect from everyone within the tribe. Although teina received mana and tapu from the kawai tipuna, they were not given automatic rights to lead the tribe as the tuakana had been given.
A simplistic diagram of a whakapapa illustrates how the inherent mana and tapu from the kawai tipuna is passed down to those of chiefly lineage. It shows how the first-born child of the ariki is regarded as ariki and this will continue to be so throughout the generations:
The mana and tapu of an ariki takes on a similar meaning to power and prestige . The tuakana inherits the right to rule and direct the tribe because of his position within society. This right to exercise his mana takes effect once his father has died or when his father has retired from the position. He also inherits the prestige of his position, and the greater the prestige acquired by the family and the tribe, the greater the mana and tapu that is inherited.
There are many responsibilities of a rangatira, but the most important is the responsibility to uphold his tribe and its mana. This would include taking responsibility for avenging wrongs to the tribe and any of its members, maintaining hereditary feuds and alliances, and offering hospitality to visitors. In short, the chief must take full responsibility for individual s or the tribe s actions.
The waiata, He Oriori mo Te Ua-o-te-Rangi, expresses the aspects of tikanga, mana and tapu held within an infant. The waiata refers to Te Ua-o-te-Rangi, who was a son of Tamati Purangi. Te Ua-o-te-Rangi was of Ngati Porou descent and he died as a child. The importance of the whakapapa of Te Ua-o-te-Rangi was referred to in the following lines:
At times it is difficult to differentiate between a breach of tapu and a breach of mana. An example of this is the particular protocol relating to whaikorero in one tribal area.
"Sometimes I have difficulty in sorting one from the other. An example of mana and tapu has to do with where I'm sitting on the pae... I've always been taught that if you get up to speak, you either stay in one place or you move to your left, so that when you come back to sit down you re coming back to the right-hand side to sit down. If I'm on the pae that contains people from other iwi, I try and practice this as much as possible. If there's a form there, I'll just step over the form and walk around the back of them to the left. You can read this in two ways. One is, I am doing that because the tikanga or the kawa is tapu, or secondly, that you do not want to tread or trample over the mana of the others who are yet to get up and speak, so you give recognition to their mana. If you do step in front of them, you might say "turuki whakataha" and then explain why you said that. It's a kind of protection for you. The practice is tapu and it is complementary in that the people you are showing deference to, have mana..."
The Functions of Mana and Tapu
The mana and tapu principles were the source of both order and dispute in Maori society. Mana and tapu were the practical forces of the kawai tipuna at work in everyday matters, and the need to defend mana and tapu against attacks by insult, excessive generosity, war or makutu through utu, made life turbulent at times. On the other hand, mana and tapu was the principle responsible for inspiring great hospitality and feasting, aristocratic rituals and alliances, the construction of pa, and wharenui, to name a few examples. In the Maori world, virtually every activity, ceremonial or otherwise, has a link with the maintenance of and enhancement of mana and tapu. It is central to the integrity of the person and the group. Many everyday measures, threaded into the fabric of existence, are designed, consciously or otherwise, as maintainers of mana and tapu.
Not only is mana inherited, mana can also be acquired by an individual throughout the course of their life. Joan Metge describes that an individual s mana can be seen as a lake filled with water fed into it by several streams. These streams represent the ways in which an individual acquires mana in different forms by different routes, but these all belong to the individual. In traditional times when a child was born, the tohi rite was performed and the child was dedicated to kawai tipuna such as Rongomatane, Tumatauenga or Hineteiwaiwa. The child acquired mana from the kawai tipuna and it was the responsibility of the whanau to protect this mana throughout their lifetime. The extended whanau took total responsibility for looking after the children. Their actions would determine the amount of mana they acquired.
A person could acquire mana through displaying prowess in warfare, being industrious, displaying exceptional skills in the arts, and having great knowledge of history and tikanga. However, a person s mana could fall if the individual abused their talents and skills, such as a misuse of leadership power, or failure to complete tasks successfully, and through insults and injuries inflicted by others. Mana could also be lost through carelessness and through a person s actions. Although this illustrates the way in which a person s mana can fluctuate, the individual s mana can be restored. It is never fixed, but continually rises and falls, as does the water level in a lake.
Additional mana could be acquired through the way rangatira conducted their actions during their reign as leader. The mana of the rangatira is enhanced when the people recognise and acknowledge the ability of the rangatira to succeed in defeating other tribes or forming new alliances with other tribes. The mana of a rangatira was integrated with the strength of the tribe, which was the result of these achievements. The success of the rangatira may have been because of the advisors or other leaders within the tribe assisting him or her, but outsiders will give sole recognition to the rangatira as the figurehead of that tribe.
A person who displayed power, prestige, authority, control and influence was seen as being looked upon favourably by the kawai tipuna and hence earned the respect of the tribe. Similarly, if a person possessed a certain skill which was well recognised, for example, if a tohunga was noted as being successful at karakia for healing the ill, or if a person continually experienced a good kumara harvest, it was thought that the mana of the tohunga or kaimahi mara had caused it, therefore their mana would increase. If a person failed to recover from illness, or if a person experienced a bad harvest, this too was a reflection of their mana and it was deemed a failure to be heard by the kawai tipuna. On the other hand, the cause of a bad harvest was sometimes due to people failing to follow the instructions of the tohunga.
Although chieftainship was a birthright due to whakapapa, this did not necessarily mean that the tuakana would be the rangatira. Low rank or a small following did not bar a teina rangatira who was determined to make his mark. All he needed was confidence, and the support of his hapu. Marriage was also a way for a teina rangatira to increase his mana considerably if he married a high-born woman of another hapu. He could also gain leadership from inheriting the mana of another teina rangatira who had also achieved leadership.
Te Rauparaha is a famous rangatira who was not of rangatira descent. When the rangatira Kawhia died, they asked who should replace him. Nobody came forward, so Te Rauparaha volunteered. He proved his worth by his deeds, and his reputation enhanced his mana so much that he was recognised as one of the successful rangatira in Maori society. If a rangatira did not prove his worth and the iwi considered it crucial to uphold their mana, they would find someone who they were confident in being able to do so and replace that rangatira. This illustrates how it was deemed possible for an ariki who had inherited the right to lead, to be replaced by a rangatira if he was considered a threat to the mana of his iwi.
The mana of a group could also be enhanced when a person of high ranking was killed in battle. The waiata, He Tangi Mo Te Kuruotemarama, illustrated how the mana of one hapu of Nga Puhi was increased when they killed Te Kuruotemarama, the rangatira of a rival hapu of Te Arawa. A Nga Puhi raiding party was heading towards Rotorua seeking utu for the killing of a relative at Motutawa (Green Lake) . When Te Arawa heard that Nga Puhi were coming for war, the tohunga advised that Mokoia Island would be the most secure area for them to go, as the invaders could not reach the island without canoes. However, the war party, led by Hongi Hika did cross the lake and consequently Te Kuruotemarama was tortured and killed. The following lines from the tangi illustrate the concepts of mana and tapu.
In these lines the composer accentuates the mana and tapu of Te Kuruotemarama, and introduces the relationship between Te Kuruotemarama and the kawai tipuna, Aitu and Maru, the kawai tipuna of disaster and death. In addition, the mana and tapu of Te Kuruotemarama was extracted from him through his subsequent torture and death. Therefore, Nga Puhi enhanced their mana and tapu following the death of Te Kuruotemarama at their hands.
Mana Pertaining to Objects
Natural resources also possessed mana. The mana of the land derives from Papatuanuku. However, it was the duty of Tane to dress his mother in a beautiful korowai of things pertaining to nature, such as the forests and rivers.
When Maori arrived in Aotearoa, nature s objects became significant landmarks acting as identifying features of a certain area. As demonstrated to us in numerous sayings, tribal pride and landmarks were connected with the hapu of a certain area and were sources of self-esteem or mana. When Maori introduce themselves to people, they recite their whakapapa, which lists the tribal landmarks renowned in their area. Those who are listening recognise the whakapapa and are able to identify which part of New Zealand this person is from. A person s whakapapa has been recited for generations linking a person with their ancestors and the land.
Inanimate objects also had the ability to possess as much mana as animate things. An example of this is the Taiaha-o-Tinatoka , which is sometimes called Nga-Moko-a-Te-Aowhea . This weapon is very effective in single combats and it never failed. A further example of the mana of weapons is when the children of Ranginui and Papatuanuku decided to separate them. Tane used a toki called Te Awhiorangi , which was fashioned out of the stone of Ngahue . Because the toki was exceedingly tapu, it also had great mana and it was seen as the prototype for all toki. The toki descended in the line of elder sons from Tanetokorangi down to Rakaumaui and from him to his great grandson Turi, who brought it across the seas in the Aotea canoe to Aotearoa. The toki was eventually hidden in the Taranaki region. An object is considered as having great mana if it was useful to humans or it had a link to the kawai tipuna as the Taiaha-o-Tinatoka did.
Mana was the practical force of the kawai tipuna at work in everyday matters. In the Maori world virtually every activity, ceremonial or otherwise has a link with the maintenance and enhancement of mana.
To inherit or acquire mana, a person, object or thing had to have either a direct link with the kawai tipuna or possess a skill that was noted as worthy to society. This was the reason therefore, as to why mana was defended jealously. Examples of displays of mana could be seen through the work of individuals trying to achieve rangatira status. The mana of the collective group was also linked with the mana of the rangatira. If the mana of the rangatira fell, so did the mana of the group.
The mana of the whanau, hapu and iwi was linked to the self-esteem of the individual and reflected how others perceived them. This was obvious through the numerous sayings and whakapapa that related to them and identified them. Inanimate objects were also capable of possessing mana because of their association with people imbued with a lot of mana or because they were used by Maori in significant events.
Tapu is a principle which acts as a corrective and coherent power within Maori society. It acted in the same way as a legal system operated, as a system of prohibitory controls, effectively acting as a protective device. The advantage was that these prohibitions were dynamic and could change with the times and environment as needed. Tapu placed restrictions upon society to ensure that society flourished and to ensure the continued growth of the tribe in the future. Thus it can be said that tapu is an analogical term and its meaning derives from the context in which it is applied.
The nature of tapu is innate and has an untouchable quality. In contemporary terms, the concept of tapu is generally perceived as sacred, holy or forbidden. More traditionally, tapu was said to imply prohibition, and from this it has been described as a quarantine law.
"It was the major cohesive force in Maori life because every person was regarded as tapu or sacred. Each life was a sacred gift, which linked a person to the ancestors, and hence the wider tribal network. This link fostered the personal security and self-esteem of an individual because it established the belief that any harm to him was also disrespect to that network which would ultimately be remedied. It also imposed on an individual the obligation to abide by the norms of behaviour established by the ancestors. In this respect, tapu firmly placed a person in an interdependent relation with his whanau, hapu and iwi. The behavioural guidelines of the ancestors were monitored by the living relatives, and the wishes of an individual were constantly balanced against the greater mana and concerns of the group..."
The Nature of Tapu
"Major offences were considered a breach of tapu, and if it was breach of tapu then it affected just about everyone, it affected the community as well..."
Tapu can isolate and restrict the activities of individuals, practices, and natural resources. All people, animals, animate and inanimate objects in their natural state are tapu to a degree. Because they are tapu they have the ability to influence the actions of society.
A thing or person becomes tapu when it is imbued with the mana of a kawai tipuna. The tapu thing is no longer for the common use of the people and has fallen under the protection of the kawai tipuna; hence it must be respected and observed in this manner.
In Maori society everything also has a wairua and mauri. Mauri is the life principle and wairua is the spirit. The mauri of a thing is to be respected. People cannot alter or fundamentally change the character of things without the appropriate karakia to the associated kawai tipuna. Further, they have to provide evidence that the change is necessary for the wellbeing of the related people. If the mauri is not respected, or if people assume to assert some dominance over a thing, it will lose its mauri, ie, its vitality and force, and those who depend on it would ultimately suffer.
In the first instance tapu is inherited through a person s ability to whakapapa to the kawai tipuna. Hierarchy determined how tapu a person was or how much tapu they possessed. Those at the top of the hierarchy, ie, the rangatira class, had the requisite tapu to lead the people by right. The nature of personal tapu is similar to mana in that the more direct a person s lineage to a kawai tipuna, the greater the individual tapu of that person, because tapu, like mana, was of the kawai tipuna, and like mana, it was acquired at birth.
Things could also be deemed tapu when circumstances required. Tapu, makutu and rahui were applied to control human behaviour and protect natural resources. Objects of importance to the community, eg, large canoes and eel weirs, attracted considerable tapu. The tapu attached to objects and objectives intensified according to their degree of social importance.
Making an object tapu was achieved through rangatira or tohunga acting as channels for the kawai tipuna and applying the mana of the kawai tipuna to that thing that needed to be tapu. For instance, if a seabed ran out of mussels, the rangatira would place a rahui over the area by saying a karakia to the appropriate kawai tipuna. That area would then be tapu to the community, prohibiting them from collecting mussels until supplies were replenished. As explained by the Waitangi Tribunal:
"A system of tapu rules combined with the Maori belief in departmental gods as having an overall responsibility for nature s resources served effectively to protect those resources from improper exploitation and the avarice of man."
Members of the community would generally know about the prohibitions created by their rangatira. They would not violate the tapu for fear of sickness or catastrophe which would follow as a result of the anger of the kawai tipuna. When the tapu of an individual is violated, or when an individual violates a tapu, the consequences can be psychologically manifested.
However, strangers would often breach tapu, either because they were not aware of the tapu status of an area or thing, or because they did not feel compelled to obey the tapu because the rangatira of another tribe had created the tapu. If a stranger breached the tapu area or thing, the community would be compelled to exact utu from, or even kill, the intruder. This requirement would ensure that the kawai tipuna did not take retribution against the community for the unrequited affront. Moreover, possessors of mana were impelled to demonstrate it, by boldness and by constant concern for their names and stations.
Personal Tapu Maori society operated in a way whereby those with great knowledge and skills and hence, great tapu, would be able to lead the society in a prosperous fashion, therefore ensuring the survival and growth of the people. An example of this is Uenuku. Uenuku was an ariki in Hawaiki before te hekenga mai o nga waka. Based upon his whakapapa and direct lineage to the kawai tipuna, Uenuku was imbued with mana and tapu of the highest rank and he could use his power to make things tapu.
"He Waiata Tawhito Mo Whatitata" 
This waiata retraces the story of Te Huripureiata and the conflict between Ruatapu and his brothers. It illustrates the nature of a dispute at whanau level and shows the concepts of mana, utu, and tapu inherent in Maori culture.
Initially it is the concept of tapu which is first introduced to the reader in reference to the lines, "Kua pano ano ki te iwi no paraoa". In Maori society, a whale is considered tapu, as a guardian or taniwha. When a whale dies, the bones are considered to be sacred, and highly prestigious taonga such as tiki, heru, or patu are made from them. The composer of the song refers to whale bones found by Whatitata. Whatitata brought the bones home to fashion a war club and Uenuku took possession of the bones and made a comb for himself.
Essentially, the dispute identified in this waiata concerns a comment made by Uenuku about his son Ruatapu. The mother of Ruatapu, Paimahutanga, was a captive of war. She was of rangatira descent, being descended from Pou-matangatanga, Rata and Wahieroa. Although she was of senior lines her whakapapa was still subservient to the whakapapa of Uenuku. Uenuku refered to Ruatapu as a bastard son, which prompted Ruatapu to seek utu by attempting to murder all the other sons of Uenuku. If he were to achieve this, he would then have become matamua. This dispute illustrates the varying degrees of tapu inherent in the characters. Ruatapu, in his need for utu, breached the individual tapu of his half brothers.
The power of a rangatira was a source of control which could be used to tapu property or person, to make a crop safe from trespass, to set aside a tree for canoe-building, or to conserve a stretch of forest or shellfish ground for an important feast.
However, at times the tapu of a rangatira could be considered more of a burden to both the rangatira and his people. A tapu person risked making common things tapu through mere touch, thereby endangering the lives of the people. The people s use of resources became restricted and they violated the tapu if they consequently touched the object made tapu by the rangatira. If the tapu was breached, the kawai tipuna withdrew their protective influence over the mauri of the offender, leaving him or her vulnerable which may have caused sickness and even death.
Descriptions of Tapu
The human person is tapu. It is the responsibility of everyone to preserve their own tapu and respect the tapu of others. This includes the tapu of places (wahi tapu) and the tapu of waters (wai tapu).
A woman is considered most tapu when she is pregnant. When a woman was closer to giving birth, she was taken to a whare kohanga away from the rest of the hapu. While she was there she had her own kaiawhina to take care of her. Separating pregnant women from the rest of the tribe ensured two things. Firstly, it removed most of the duties a woman would have had to perform, letting her rest and stay strong while carrying the child. Secondly, by remaining separate from the rest of the hapu, the risk of sickness and disease was greatly reduced; hence the mother avoided any unnecessary duress during pregnancy. Obviously the tapu of the woman in this context ensured the survival of as many children as possible, to keep the hapu strong.
Once the child was born, the whare kohanga she lived in during the pregnancy was burnt to the ground. There were spiritual reasons for doing this. The practical reasons were to destroy any disease, which may have developed during the birthing process. This protected the rest of the tribe from sickness and maintained a standard of hygiene. If the next pregnant mother were to live in the house she would contract any disease left by the last occupant.
Warriors travelling to battle were considered tapu, and under the protection of Tumatauenga. The people could not approach them during this time. One reason was so that the warriors remained focused on the looming battle and were not distracted by everyday matters, so that they could fight to their greatest potential.
Similarly, tohunga whakairo are extremely tapu due to the nature of their work. They must not be approached while carving and food can not be eaten near the carvings. The practical reasons are that all focus of the tohunga whakairo is on the job, ensuring that when they are carving, no mistakes are made. In addition to the tohunga whakairo being tapu, so too are the materials they work with. Any waste, such as the chips are not discarded or used in fires.
Material from the natural environment is tapu. All things including flora, fauna and minerals are descendants of the kawai tipuna and hence protected by the respective kawai tipuna. Once permission was granted to remove material from the natural environment, it was common practice to return any waste to where it was removed.
When flax was utilised, only the outer leaves were used, leaving the central shoots to continue to sprout. Any waste was returned and lain at the base of the plant. This was done to ensure that the flax could always continue to grow and not die, and returning the waste gave back to the plant the nutrients that were removed. This was done so as not to offend the kawai tipuna who protected it by breaching the tapu of the plant. In this way tapu acted to protect the environment in which the Maori lived, ensuring it could sustain generations to come.
Tapu is a supernatural condition. Animate and inanimate objects have a direct genealogical link with the kawai tipuna, particularly Tane, whose attempts to produce the human element resulted in all these things. The tapu of humans, animate and inanimate objects is about the relationship between the physical and spiritual realm. Examples of these relationships are found in waiata and karakia, each having its own tapu nature.
Everything was regarded as tapu. Individuals and groups have responsibilities and obligations to abide by the norms of behaviour and practices established by the tipuna. Tapu acted as a protective mechanism for both people and natural resources. Making something or someone tapu could either protect the environment against interference from people or protect people from possible dangers they may encounter.
157. Maori Religion and Mythology above n 23, 53
158. The Relevance of Maori Myth and Tradition above n 6, 19, 21
159. Mana above n 136, 220
160. Maori Marsden "God, Man and Universe" in Michael King (ed) Te Ao Hurihuri: The World Moves on: Aspects of Maoritanga (Hicks Smith, Wellington, 1975) 191, 194 [God, Man and Universe]
161. Waitangi Tribunal The Whanganui River Report Wai 167 (GP Publications, Wellington, 1999) 39 [The Whanganui River Report]
162. The Coming of the Maori above n 16, 337-338
163. The title of 'ariki' was given to the tuakana or first-born child of another ariki. The siblings of the ariki were known as 'rangatira'.
164. The Coming of the Maori above n 16, 343-347
165. Exploring Maori Values above n 14, 152
166. See A Collection of Behaviours, Philosophies, Emotions and Cultural Influences for an explanation of 'oriori'
167. Ripeka Pai-a-te Hau "He Oriori mo Te-Ua-o-te-Rangi" in Apirana Ngata and Pei Te Hurinui Jones Nga Moteatea: He Marama Rere No Nga Waka Maha (The Songs: Scattered Pieces from many Canoe Areas) A Selection of Annotated Tribal Songs of the Maori with English Translations Part II (The Polynesian Society Inc., Auckland, 1986) 80 81
168. Trampling or treading on someone else's mana is referred to as takahi mana. See A Collection of Behaviours, Philosophies, Emotions and Cultural Influences for a further explanation of takahi mana.
169. Kaumatua Interview, Wellington, 13 February 1999
170. See A Collection of Behaviours, Philosophies, Emotions and Cultural Influences for an explanation of 'makutu'
171. Joan Metge In and Out of Touch: Whakama in a Cross Cultural Context (Victoria University Press, Wellington, 1986) 68 [In and Out of Touch]
172. The Coming of the Maori above n 16, 353
173. In and Out of Touch above n 171, 72. See also 'he moana ke ta matawhanui, he moana ke ta matawhaiti' under A Collection of Behaviours, Philosophies, Emotions and Cultural Influences for an illustration of how rangatira may increase their mana
174. In and Out of Touch above n 171, 68
175. The Coming of the Maori above n 16, 345
176. Ann Parsonson The Pursuit of Mana in W H Oliver and B R Williams (eds) Oxford History of New Zealand (Oxford University Press, Auckland, 1981) 140, 141 [The Pursuit of Mana]
177. Leadership: Inherited and Achieved above n 102, 86, 87
178. Kaumatua Interview, Wellington, 9 April 1999
179. Tiaka Tomika "He Tangi mo Te Kuruotemarama" in Apirana Ngata and Pei Te Hurinui Jones Nga Moteatea: He Marama Rere No Nga Waka Maha (The Songs: Scattered Pieces from many Canoe Areas) A Selection of Annotated Tribal Songs of the Maori with English Translations Part I (The Polynesian Society Inc., Auckland, 1988) 22 -27
180. Michael Shirres Te Tangata: The Human Person (Accent Publications, Auckland, 1997) 55
181. Elsdon Best "The Maori as he was" in Sidney Moko Mead (ed) Nga Taonga Tuku Iho a te Maori: Customary Concepts of the Maori (2 ed, Department of Maori Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, 1984) 91 [The Maori as he was]
182. Exploring Maori Values above n 14, 108
183. God, Man and Universe above n 160, 194-197
184. H W Williams Dictionary of the Maori Language (GP Publications Ltd, Wellington, 1992) 385
185. The Maori as he was above n 181, 91
186. James Cowan "The Maori Yesterday and Today" in Sidney Moko Mead (ed) Nga Taonga Tuku Iho a te Maori: Customary Concepts of the Maori (2 ed, Department of Maori Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, 1984) 92
187. He Whaipanga Hou above n 3, 41
188. Kaumatua Interview, Wellington, 8 April 1999
189. For the purposes of this chapter, things refers to all those that have just been listed
190. The Whanganui River Report above n 161, 39
191. See A Collection of Behaviours, Philosophies, Emotions and Cultural Influences for an explanation of makutu
192. Muriwhenua Fishing Report above n 4, 3
193. Ngai Tahu Fisheries Report above n 12, 97, 5 WTR 517
194. A Show of Justice above 106, 6
195. Ngati Kahungunu "He Waiata Tawhito mo Whatitata" in Apirana Ngata and Pei Te Hurinui Jones Nga Moteatea: He Marama Rere No Nga Waka Maha (The Songs: Scattered Pieces from many Canoe Areas) A Selection of Annotated Tribal Songs of the Maori with English Translations Part II (The Polynesian Society Inc., Auckland, 1986) 64 -67
196. A Show of Justice above n 106, 6
197. Ranginui Walker "Maori Sovereignty: The Maori Perspective" in Hineani Melbourne Maori Sovereignty: The Maori Perspective (Hodder Moa Beckett Publishers Limited, Auckland, 1995) 26-27