Commonly used terms

Marine and Coastal Area (MACA)

The marine and coastal area is the seabed and the 'wet' part of the beach that is covered by the ebb and flow of the tide. It does not include the dry part of the beach.  It is equivalent to the ‘foreshore and seabed' under the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004.

The marine and coastal area is the area between the line of mean high water springs and the outer limits of the territorial sea (12 nautical miles from shore).  The marine and coastal area includes the air space and water space above the land, and the subsoil, bedrock and other matters below.

Common marine and coastal area (CMCA)

It is the marine and coastal area (see above), excluding existing private titles and certain conservation areas.  It is the same area as the ‘public foreshore and seabed' which was vested in the Crown under the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004.

Customary marine title (CMT)

Customary marine title is a different sort of title from fee simple title.  It comes from a common law concept which recognises property rights of indigenous people that have continued since or before acquisition of Crown sovereignty to the present day.

Customary marine title is inalienable - the land cannot be sold.  Customary marine title cannot be converted to freehold title. It recognises the relationship that has existed, and will continue to exist, between iwi, hapū and whānau and the common marine and coastal area.

Protected Customary Rights (PCR)

Protected customary rights provide recognition and protection of customary activities, uses and practices that are exercised in the common marine and coastal area (examples are collecting hangi stones, or launching waka).


Tikanga means Māori customary values and practices.


Kaitiakitanga means the exercise of guardianship by the tangata whenua of an area in accordance with tikanga Māori in relation to natural and physical resources; and includes the ethic of stewardship.


Rohe means the boundary or territory (either geographical or spiritual) of an iwi, hapū or whānau.

Mana tuku iho

Mana tuku iho means inherited right or authority derived in accordance with tikanga.