Results by subject

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

A

Alcohol and drugs

Where a respondent had contact with the offender the following questions are asked:

  • As far as you know, at the time the incident happened was the person who did it affected at all by alcohol?
  • How certain are you that the person was affected by alcohol?
  • As far as you know, at the time it happened was the person who did it affected at all by drugs?

Relevant commentary about the use of alcohol and drugs can be found on pages 64 and 65 of the main findings report and in Data tables set 1 - Extent and nature Tables 4.1 and 4.2.

Main findings report [PDF, 12 MB]

Extent and nature Tables [XLSX, 827 KB]

Area and regional statistics

The NZCASS sample is not geographically stratified to ensure respondents are representative of each area in New Zealand. This means that NZCASS results are only analysed by wider regions and levels of urbanisation, and not by local area.

In 2014 the urbanisation categories that were reported on were: main urban area, secondary urban area, minor urban area, and rural. These groupings are in line with Statistics New Zealand standards. They differ from those reported on in 2009.

In 2014 the regional categories that were reported on were: Auckland, Wellington, rest of North Island, Canterbury, and rest of South Island. These groupings were changed from 2009 to better align with standard classifications where possible. Due to sample sizes not all regional classifications were possible, but the 2014 groupings used are in line with the Household Economic Survey (HES).

These geographic factors were used predominantly as part of the various ‘factors associated with’ tables presented in the NZCASS data tables. Relevant commentary can be found in the main findings report.

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B

Bullying

In most cases bullying and bullying behaviours are not considered crimes and so are out of scope for the NZCASS. Where bullying behaviours result in an offence that is in scope for the NZCASS (such as assault, threats and damage), then they would be captured in part. However, identifying these as part of ‘bullying’ would be problematic.

In the perceptions section of the questionnaire, when asked ‘What types of crime problems do you think there are in this neighbourhood’, a number of respondents in 2014 cited bullying/intimidation/harassment in the ‘other – specify’ response option. This is an unprompted response with low numbers, and is not likely to truly reflect the issue in New Zealand, however it does indicate that some survey participants perceive bullying as an issue.

If you have questions about what information is captured and may be of use, please refer to the NZCASS variables (data items) list or contact us

NZCASS variables (data items) list [XLS, 373 KB]

Businesses as victims of crime

Understanding and assessing the victimisation of businesses is a complicated process that needs a specialised questionnaire and set of methodological considerations. As such, crimes against businesses (including farms) are out of scope for the NZCASS.

In the perceptions section of the questionnaire, when asked ‘What types of crime problems do you think there are in this neighbourhood’, a number of respondents in 2014 cited theft of farm property or stock theft in the ‘other – specify’ response option. This is an unprompted response with low numbers, and is not likely to truly reflect the issue in New Zealand. However, it shows it is a perceived issue for some.

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C

Children and young people under 15 years

Interviews with children and young people under 15 years old are out of scope for the NZCASS. For young people under 15 years old to be interviewed, an age-appropriate questionnaire and methodology would need to be designed and implemented, along with a specialised informed consent process (i.e. Guardian consent would be needed and, in some cases, the guardian may be the offender which could introduce bias and put the child in a difficult position).

While New Zealand does not currently have a youth crime survey, the Crime Survey of England and Wales (CSEW) conducts a separate survey designed specifically for young people aged 10–15 years old. Information about this survey can be found on the CSEW website (external link)

Concentration of crime

‘Concentration of crime’ is a term used in NZCASS 2006 and 2009 reporting to:

  • measure how many times one person or a household has experienced a crime
  • discuss multiple and repeat victimisation.

Confrontational crime

‘Confrontational crime’ is a term used in NZCASS 2006 and 2009 reporting. It includes assaults and threats to a person or their personal property where the offender was a partner or a person well known to the victim. Confrontational crime does not include psychological or economic abuse, such as insults or withholding household money.

In 2014, the framework for analysing and reporting on violent interpersonal offences was updated and confrontational crime analysis was discontinued.

Corporate or ‘white collar’ crime

Understanding and assessing the victimisation of businesses is a complicated process that needs a specialised questionnaire and set of methodological considerations. As such, crimes against businesses (including farms) are out of scope for the NZCASS.

Costs of crime

While some information was collected in 2006 with the aim of assessing ‘the cost of crime’, the resulting costs estimates were not seen as robust enough for publication. As a result, the cost of crime module within the NZCASS was not repeated in 2009 or 2014 and is currently considered out of scope for the survey.

You can read the New Zealand Treasury’s working paper on this topic: Estimating the costs of crime in New Zealand in 2003/04 (first published in July 2006).

Estimating the costs of crime in New Zealand in 2003/04 (external link)

Cyber crime / e-crime

A series of questions about electronic crime (‘e-crime’) were asked as part of NZCASS 2006 but have not been repeated. Read The Experience of E-Crime: Findings from the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006

The Experience of E-Crime: Findings from the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006 [PDF, 230 KB]

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D

Drugs and alcohol

Where a respondent had contact with the offender the following questions are asked:

  • As far as you know, at the time the incident happened was the person who did it affected at all by alcohol?
  • How certain are you that the person was affected by alcohol?
  • As far as you know, at the time it happened was the person who did it affected at all by drugs?

Relevant commentary about the use of alcohol and drugs can be found on pages 64 and 65 of the main findings report and in Data tables set 1 - Extent and nature: Tables 4.1 and 4.2.

Main findings report [PDF, 12 MB]

Extent and nature Tables [XLSX, 827 KB]

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E

e-crime / cyber crime

A series of questions about electronic crime (‘e-crime’) were asked as part of NZCASS 2006 but have not been repeated. Read The Experience of E-Crime: Findings from the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006

The Experience of E-Crime: Findings from the New Zealand Crime and Safety Survey 2006 [PDF, 230 KB]

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F

Family violence

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G

Gangs and gang activity

A small amount of information was collected in the NZCASS 2014 about public perceptions of gangs and gang activity in the respondent’s neighbourhood. The following questions are asked:

  • What sort of crime problems do you think there are in this neighbourhood? [Unprompted response option: ‘Gangs/Gang activity’ included]
  • Can you tell me how much of a problem you think the following things are in your neighbourhood? [Gangs/gang activity or gang visibility]

Relevant commentary about gangs and gang activity can be found on page 35 of the main findings report and in Data tables set 5 - Public perceptions: Tables 21.2 and 21.3.

Main findings report [PDF, 12 MB]

Data tables set 5 - Public perceptions [XLSX, 851 KB]

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H

Homicide / murder / manslaughter

Offences for where the victim of the crime is not available to be interviewed, such as murder / manslaughter / homicide, are out of scope for the NZCASS.

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I

International comparisons of crime and victimisation

We can’t directly compare statistics between the NZCASS and similar international surveys. However, a number of common themes were found as part of a 2010 review of international research.

Interpersonal violence

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M

Māori

Multiple / repeat victimisation

Multiple victimisation is when someone has been the victim of crime more than once regardless of the type of offence, for example, someone might have been assaulted, had their car stolen and had their house burgled all in the same year.

Murder / manslaughter / homicide

Offences for where the victim of the crime is not available to be interviewed, such as murder / manslaughter / homicide, are out of scope for the NZCASS.

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O

Offenders / perpetrators

The NZCASS asks about people’s experiences of crime from the victim’s perspective. The survey does not ask about crimes that the respondent may have committed. Where a victim had contact with the offender(s), some information about their relationship to the offender(s) is collected.

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P

(Intimate) partner violence

Perpetrators / offenders

The NZCASS asks about people’s experiences of crime from the victim’s perspective. The survey does not ask about crimes that the respondent may have committed. Where a victim had contact with the offender(s), some information about their relationship to the offender(s) is collected.

Public perceptions of crime

The NZCASS asks some questions about peoples perceptions of crime and disorder in their neighbourhoods along with fear and worry about crime.

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R

Regional and area statistics

The NZCASS sample is not geographically stratified to ensure respondents are representative of each area in New Zealand. This means that NZCASS results are only analys7ed by wider regions and levels of urbanisation, and not by local area.

In 2014 the urbanisation categories that were reported on were: main urban area, secondary urban area, minor urban area, and rural. These groupings are in line with Statistics New Zealand standards. They differ from those reported on in 2009.

In 2014 the regional categories that were reported on were: Auckland, Wellington, rest of North Island, Canterbury, and rest of South Island. These groupings were changed from 2009 to better align with standard classifications where possible. Due to sample sizes not all regional classifications were possible, but the 2014 groupings used are in line with the Household Economic Survey (HES).

These geographic factors were used predominantly as part of the various ‘factors associated with’ tables presented in the NZCASS data tables. Relevant commentary can be found in the main findings report.

Repeat / multiple victimisation

Repeat victimisation is when someone has been the victim of the same offence more than once, for example, two or more burglaries.

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S

Sexual violence

Senior citizens (65 years and older)

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W

Weapons (use of)

Where a respondent had contact with the offender the following questions are asked:

  • During this incident, did the person who did it have a weapon or something they threatened to use as a weapon?
  • [If yes] What was the weapon?

Relevant commentary about the use of weapons can be found on page 55 of the main findings report and in Data tables set 1 - Extent and nature: Table 4.3.

Main findings report [PDF, 12 MB]

Data tables - Extent and nature [XLSX, 827 KB]

White collar (corporate) crime

Understanding and assessing the victimisation of businesses is a complicated process that needs a specialised questionnaire and set of methodological considerations. As such, crimes against businesses (including farms) are out of scope for the NZCASS.

Women

A range of information about the victimisation of women can be found in the main findings report and in the data tables.

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Y

Youth and young people

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